The experienced German was standing in for Sergio Perez after the Mexican driver tested positive for COVID-19 and went into quarantine.
"Gutted. Absolutely gutted," the team said on Twitter.
"It’s a bit crazy isn’t it?" Hulkenberg said.
Somehow it fits into all these crazy days that I’ve experienced, but obviously kind of disappointing for me and the team.
"Obviously they tried everything but [there was] some sort of power unit issue and we didn’t manage to start the car and get out there, which is obviously disappointing. We’re looking into why, we don’t know that."
Hulkenberg, who may get a second chance at next weekend's 70th Anniversary Grand Prix at Silverstone, had qualified 13th for the Canadian-owned team.