The Spanish rider, of Althea Racing Ducati, beat Marco Melandri of BMW Motorrad Motorsport by 2.313 seconds for the win.
Max Biaggi of Aprilia Racing completed the podium.
Pole sitter Jakob Smrz fell back to sixth, behind Honda’s Jonathan Rea and Aprilia Racing’s Eugene Laverty.
Front row starter Tom Sykes also faded back to eighth, finishing behind Chaz Davies.
"I had a great time and I always enjoy coming to America, spending time around here, and I always feel really well at this track," Checa said.
"It is a fantastic moment for me to win again, get on the podium, to take a victory, so some great feelings come back. It is a really special day for all the Americans here as it is Memorial Day so I want to dedicate this victory to you."
Race one result:
1. Carlos Checa - Althea Racing Ducati 1098R - 38:21.283
2. Marco Melandri - BMW Motorrad Motorsport BMW S1000 RR - +2.13s
3. Max Biaggi - Aprilia Racing Team Aprilia RSV4 Factory - +5.338
4. Jonathan Rea - Honda World Superbike Team Honda CBR1000RR - +5.517
5. Eugene Laverty - Aprilia Racing Team Aprilia RSV4 Factory - +12.201
6. Jakub Smrz - Liberty Racing Team Effenbert Ducati 1098R - +13.262
7. Chaz Davies - ParkinGO MTC Racing ParkinGO MTC Racing - +19.662
8. Tom Sykes - Kawasaki Racing Team Kawasaki ZX-10R - +21.292
9. Michel Fabrizio - BMW Motorrad Italia BMW S1000 RR - +21.450
10. Leon Haslam - BMW Motorrad Motorsport BMW S1000 RR - +23.433