Maxi Medard and Virgile Lacombe grabbed first-half tries for the hosts who led 14-3 at the interval.
DTH van der Merwe gave Glasgow a glimmer of hope early in the second half but they were blown away by a clinical Toulouse outfit, who scored further tries through Clement Poitrenaud, Thierry Dusautoir and Vincent Clerc.
The Warriors had a torrid week in the south of France with the weather across Europe causing chaos.
Sean Lineen's men had first endured a 16-hour journey to Toulouse and upon their arrival they discovered their luggage had not arrived. That led to the game being postponed twice until the kit was located and delivered to the team.
Toulouse dominated the opening exchanges and Medard broke the deadlock with a fine individual try after 10 minutes. The Top 14 leading try scorer found a mismatch in midfield and stepped inside prop forward Moray Low to race clear and score beneath the posts. David Skrela duly converted to give his side a 7-0 lead.
Colin Gregor came close to scoring after a trademark Max Evans break, but the scrum-half was dragged down agonisingly short of the line but the Warriors secured a penalty and Ruaridh Jackson dissected the posts.
The game almost boiled over with a mass brawl following a Toulouse penalty and because Richie Grey was adjudged to have started the altercation, he was sent to the sin-bin. As a result, Toulouse extended their lead with a second try on the 23rd minute mark, Lacombe the beneficiary of a powerful rolling maul, with Skrela adding the extras.
The visitors made a perfect start to the second half when Van der Merwe danced his way over after 45 minutes. The flying Dutchman stepped inside Poitrenaud to score between the posts. Jackson converted the solo effort to bring Glasgow within four points.
But Toulouse immediately struck back with a Skrela penalty before Poitrenaud made amends and raced clear to score a crucial try that Skrela expertly converted from the touchline.
And the European giants secured the all-important bonus-point try through Dusautoir on 65 minutes before Clerc rubbed salt into Glasgow's wounds.