Centers David Backes of the St. Louis Blues and Patrice Bergeron of the Boston Bruins were also nominated for the Selke, which will be presented on June 20 at the National Hockey League Awards in Las Vegas.
The 33-year-old Datsyuk, who won the award from 2008-2010, ranked third in the NHL in takeaways, was the top face-off man for the Red Wings and had a plus-21 rating during the 2011-12 season.
His fifth nomination matches the streaks by Montreal's Guy Carbonneau (1986 through 1990) and Bob Gainey (1978 through 1982) as the longest since the award was introduced in 1978.
Edmonton Oilers winger Jordan Eberle, who led his team in goals and points and had only 10 penalty minutes all season, was a finalist for the Lady Byng Memorial Trophy given to the player who exhibits sportsmanship and gentlemanly conduct along with a high standard of play.
Eberle, who turns 22 on May 15, is the youngest Lady Byng finalist since Anaheim Ducks forward Paul Kariya won the award at 21 years, eight months in 1996 after his sophomore season.
Defenseman Brian Campbell of the Florida Panthers and left wing Matt Moulson of the New York Islanders were the other finalists for the award.