The Venezuelan made contact with the McLaren driver on the final lap when trying to take third place away from the Briton.
Hamilton had to retire from the race while Maldonado went on to finish in 10th position.
The penalty, with 20 seconds added to his final time, drops Maldonado to 12th position, with Williams team-mate Bruno Senna getting the final point.
Williams driver Maldonado was trying to overtake Hamilton for third place when they came together on the penultimate lap, sending the Briton into the barriers and out of the race.
Maldonado said the incident would not have happened if Hamilton had given him more space.
"He tried to put me off the track," said Maldonado.
"He didn't leave any room for me to stay on and do the corner side by side. I jumped over the kerb and I couldn't avoid the accident."
The Venezuelan felt Hamilton should have accepted that he was going to get overtaken as his McLaren's pace faded.
"I don't know why he drove like that," Maldonado said. "He was struggling too much with the tyres.
"He was completely lost and at that moment I was getting very good pace. He tried a very aggressive move on me."