The 24-year-old has been on trial at The Valley during the summer and impressed in the club's friendlies.
Dervite-Vaussoue, a former Tottenham academy graduate, also captained France Under-18's.
"We're delighted to get Dorian on board and he will enhance our squad," manager Chris Powell told the club's official website.
"He has done very well during his trial period and we feel he will bring extra quality to our ranks. We're very pleased and look forward to working with him."
Subject to international clearance being received, he should be eligible for the season-opener against Birmingham on Saturday.