The 21-year-old Italian, who rides for Colnago, was joined on the podium by Miche's Davide Rebellin (2nd) and Katusha's Daniel Moreno (3rd) after crossing the line in four hours 53 minutes and 25 seconds.
Battaglin and Rebellin fought it out for glory in the final kilometre, a steep uphill burst, and managed to hold off the late challenge of Moreno despite able support from his Katusha team-mates Filippo Pozzato and Luca Paolini.
"I gave my best in order to try to win until the end," said Moreno, "but unfortunately today my rivals were faster than me..
"It's a pity, because I felt in a good shape and the course, with a climbing in the last kilometre with a 5-6 per cent gradient was suitable to my characteristics for sure..
"The team, too, did a great job in the last stage: I wanted to take the win for them too, but anyway I'm happy to have reached the podium."
Moreno also confirmed he would be competing in the Giro dell'Emilia next Saturday.