The 22-year-old was far too strong for his opponent, stopping him after two minutes 32 seconds of the fifth round.
Despite coming in more than three pounds overweight, Broner improves to 24-0, with 20 victories coming in by way of knockout - and he said afterwards that he plans to move up a weight class.
"I'm going out of my weight class, and I'll take on anyone," said Broner.
"Vicente is a world-class fighter. I can't take anything away from him. But he didn't hit me with anything significant. I make all my work easy."
The fight only took place after frenzied last-minute negotiations between the two camps, and Escobedo, whose record now stands at 26 wins and four defeats, said he did not regret competing.
"I had to keep to my decision," he said. "I came in on weight like a professional. And he didn't."